(c) See Rule 27-1c [Ball Not Found Within Five Minutes]which states, in part, “If a ball is lost as a result of not being found or identified as his by the player within five minutes after the player’s side or his or their caddies have begun to search for it, the player must play a ball, under penalty of one stroke, as nearly as possible at the spot from which the original ball was last played….” Note that, had the dandelion patch been designated as ground under repair, then Petunia would have been able to take relief from the dandelions under Rule 25 [Abnormal Ground Conditions] since it was known or virtually certain that the original ball was lost in an abnormal ground condition.
(d)Heather incurred the first penalty stroke when she proceeded in accordance with Rule 28 [Ball Unplayable]. According to Decision 28/13 [After Deeming Ball Unplayable and Lifting It, Player Discovers Ball Was in Ground Under Repair], once a player has put a ball into play under Rule 28 [Ball Unplayable], he is not permitted to then take relief, without penalty, under Rule 25 [Abnormal Ground Conditions] for the ground under repair. When Heather dropped and played another ball thinking that she could proceed under Rule 25, she was in breach of Rule 15-2 [Substituted Ball] for wrongly substituting a ball and Rule 20-7 [Playing from Wrong Place] for playing from a wrong place. In stroke play, Heather incurred an additional penalty of two strokes for playing from a wrong place, but there is no additional penalty for incorrectly substituting a ball. See the Exception to Rule 15-2.
(c) According to Rule 13-2 [Improving Lie, Area of Intended Stance or Swing, or Line of Play],generally, a player must not improve the area of his intended swing by moving, bending or breaking anything that is growing. See Decision 13-2/19 [Improving Area of Intended Swing by Moving Growing or Fixed Object Situated Out of Bounds]. Also see Decision 13-2/24 [Area of Originally Intended Swing Improved by Breaking Branch; Area of Intended Swing Finally Used Not Affected by Branch] which points out, “The player was in breach of Rule 13-2 as soon as he improved the area of the originally intended swing. The penalty is not avoided if he subsequently plays in another direction, even if the breaking of the branch had no effect on the area of the swing for a stroke in the new direction.”