(a) This is a great question which tests your knowledge of some of those Rules which require adjustments to the state of a match. Based on their scores for the 1st hole, A is 1-up. However, between the play of the 1st and 2nd holes, it is discovered that A has breached Rule 4-4 [Maximum of Fourteen Clubs]. The penalty statement for this Rule states, in part, “If a breach is discovered between the play of two holes, it is deemed to have been discovered during the play of the hole just completed and the penalty for a breach of Rule 4-4a … does not apply to the next hole.” Thus, after the 1st hole, the state of the match is all square. During play of the 2nd hole, it is discovered that A has breached the transportation condition (thanks to his caddie), as well as the one ball condition. These conditions are set forth in Appendix I, Part B [Conditions of Competition], and the penalty statements for each of them indicate that the state of the match is adjusted by deducting one hole at the conclusion of the hole at which the breach is discovered. Based on their scores for the 2nd hole, the match remains all square. However, when the match is adjusted for the dual breach of the transportation and one ball conditions, B is 2-up. Between the play of the 2nd and 3rd holes, it is discovered that B has been in breach of Rule 4-1 [Form and Make of Clubs] from the beginning of the match for carrying a non-conforming club. However, the penalty statement for this Rule points out, “If a breach is discovered between the play of two holes, it is deemed to have been discovered during the play of the next hole, and the penalty must be applied accordingly.” Thus, the two-hole deduction for B’s breach of Rule 4-1 will not take place until completion of the 3rd hole!
(a) The Exception to Rule 27-1c [Ball Not Found Within Five Minutes] states, in part, “If it is known or virtually certain that the original ball, that has not been found, … is in a water hazard (Rule 26-1), the player may proceed under the applicable Rule. See also Decisions 26-1/1 [Meaning of “Known or Virtually Certain”] and 26-1/3.5 [Ball Dropped Under Water Hazard Rule with Knowledge or Virtual Certainty; Original Ball Then Found].
(b) According to Rule 29-3 [Threesomes and Foursomes: Stroke Play], when the partners make a stroke or strokes in incorrect order, such stroke or strokes are canceled and the side incurs a penalty of two strokes, and the side is disqualified if it does not correct the error prior to making a stroke on the next teeing ground. However, in this particular situation, Rule 29-3 does not apply because B has breached Rule 1-2 [Exerting Influence on Movement of Ball or Altering Physical Conditions]. That Rule states, in part, “A player must not … take an action with the intent to influence the movement of a ball in play.” The penalty of a breach of this Rule in stroke play is two strokes. Note 2 of this Rule points out, “In stroke play, except where a serious breach resulting in disqualification is involved, a player in breach of Rule 1-2 in relation to the movement of his own ball must play the ball from where it was stopped, or, if the ball was deflected, from where it came to rest.”
(a) Since the player was able to identify his ball, the ball is not lost. See Decision 27/14 [Ball in Tree Identified But Not Retrieved]. Having deemed his ball unplayable, Rule 28 [Ball Unplayable] is the applicable Rule. Although his ball came to rest above the bunker, his ball is not in the bunker per the Definition of “Bunker” which states, in part, “The margin of a bunker extends vertically downwards, but not upwards.” Thus, the player is not required to drop a ball in the bunker. In fact, all three of the relief options under Rule 28 are available to the player, including that of Rule 28b which is to drop a ball behind where the ball lay, keeping that point directly between the hole and the spot on which the ball is dropped, with no limit to how far behind that point the ball may be dropped.